《周易》古法卜筮
 Orthodox Divination

    甚麼是正宗筮法
  What's Orthodox Divination

卜筮的意義
The Significance of Divination


 正宗筮法撮要:

Extract:

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甚麼是正宗筮法

在講解甚麼是古法卜筮之前,我們必須首先弄清楚一關於卜筮概念上的問題。按理解,卜筮是利用一些既定的方法和程序、把一些訊息從「某度空間」傳送到求卦人的手上。「某度空間」是指神麼?在沒有更佳論證出現之前,我們是無法否定的。如何接收這等訊息呢?第一步是依既定的程序求卦;第二步是按筮書上的文字;即卦辭和爻辭來解釋該卦的啟示。上古有三本筮書:《連山》、《歸藏》和《周易》;但如今只有《周易》流傳下來。

《周易》是一本筮書,但內容並沒有說及任何有關卜筮系統的東西、例如卜筮的方法等。不過,根據《繫辭》的資料記載以及歷代易學家的考證,古筮法是指上古時候以五十根蓍草,經過十八次的分揲而得出一卦的求卦法。這種揲筮的方式是一種獨特的程序,相信是接收「訊息」的一種原始方法,因此,我們肯定其正宗的地位。至於後世採用簡化的方法,如用金錢和龜殼的求卦法,我們一直都存有疑問。

《周易》正宗古法卜筮就是上述以蓍草求卦加上《周易》卦爻辭解讀卦義的卜筮方程式。

 

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卜筮的意義

在傳統上,卜筮的意義等同卜筮的目的,為預知所筮問的事。但今天,我們認為卜筮的意義有兩重;一是卜筮本身所包含的意義、二是卜筮的道德意義。

1. 卜筮本身的意義

卜筮是人們在遇到疑難,而無法作出進一步行為時冀望得到啟示的一種方法。卜筮的意義是當人的智慧及正常邏輯也無法解決、判斷、或分析疑難的時候提供啟示;亦即是說,其意義在使人「知機」。上古出現卜筮文化的原因,是由於那時人類的知識水平甚低,事事都需要「天」的指引所致。現代人類知識水平比上古時大大提高了;不旦為甚麼人們亦常有難於取決的情況?原因是人事和世事的變化也隨時代的轉變而比上古時複雜得多。故此,無論在任何時空,過去、現在、或將來,人們一定會遇上本身智慧分析不來的問題;最低限度,在非理性範圍的疑難、例如感情,便需要他人作「思想」上的指引。那麼,為甚麼有些人看像從來沒有想不通的問題的呢?他們永沒有疑難的麼?不是的,「疑難」多與少端賴個人對「相對」概念了解的深淺、以及對事物的洞悉能力的高低。所以有人常常被小問題困得團團轉,有人只有在面臨重大抉擇時才會感到困惑。

說到這裡,我們不禁要問:「相對」和「卜筮的意義」有關係麼?自盤古初開,天地定位以來,宇宙間的事物並沒有不對立的;引而伸之,一切都存在著差異。這個就是為甚麼上古時代出現卜筮文化的原因;明顯地,他們並不知道「相對」的道理。卜筮的意義在「知機」,叫人清楚明白應行的道路。但只有把握「相對」的道理,才能夠理解事物的對立關係,從而知所抉擇,避卻事無大小都求神問卜的過態。

在現在複雜人事的世界裡,卜筮的意義更被有智慧的人加以引伸,成為一種擴闊思維空間的「營養素」。例如當遇有疑難的時候去問卦,所得到的卜辭成為極具參考的一種獨異的資訊,雖未必百份之百需要依樣葫蘆,但得到的「建議」往往是當事人從來未考慮過的,確是千金難買。有人因此認為卜筮的意義不在其結果的準確性,而在卜筮所得到卜辭的啟示。然而,這個說法顯然犯了邏輯上的錯誤。如果卜筮不準確,所得到的卦爻辭也都與該事無關,拿一些無關的東西去思索問題,邏輯上是說不過去的。倒不如不用卜筮,只在《周易》的卦爻辭找點靈感算了!

當然,卜卦需要經過嚴謹的學習過程,解卦更是一件艱難的事。因此,有些企業人在不全面相信卜筮之餘,也都願意「買」卜,看看有甚麼獨異的啟示,作為一種擴闊參考範圍的途徑。不過,解卦人的資歷和學養最關鍵,把卜筮的結果(卦爻辭)嵌合現實環境來作出闡釋,便並非一般江湖賣卜者可以勝任。

【古時的太卜(解卦人)是君王的智囊(如今天的中央決策組成員),一切經國大事,如冊立繼承人、軍爭、農耕、田獵、婚媾、祭祀等都須經他們把筮得的資訊,藉其所示之吉凶、揉合了當時的環境、運用推理的機關、斷定了其事的取向,然後向君上獻謀,最後成為決策。他們的地位超然而重要,於此可見一斑。】

在此,我節錄一個於某次「易與管理」座談會的答問、藉卜筮的意義來解釋一個「相對」概念的問題。提問者是一位年青的市場區域經理。

2. 道德意義(Moral significance)

卜筮的意義是在人的智慧及正常邏輯也無法解決、判斷、分析的疑難上提供啟示,使求筮人決定下一步的行止,知所進退,而並非單純地只告訴吉凶。因此,我們認為《周易》卜筮是具道德意義的。

所謂道德意義,不在於卦兆的吉凶,而在於人性道德標準上的是非對錯。一般只會簡單地告知吉凶的占卜方法,是根本地缺乏道德意義。具道德意義者,除告吉凶外,還勉勵以「人的行為」為事的骨幹,即鼓勵「謀事在人」。試想想,例如筮得往西將吉,但若不前往,又何以為吉?《周易》便是充滿這種積極道德義意色彩的哲學,是孔子「義命分立」學說的先驅。《周易》的卜筮哲學,以筮為「命」;爻辭所含的道德標準,便是「義」了。故此筮得吉者,猶須勉力行之,結果吉者更吉;筮得凶者,知其何以為凶,故知所避忌,結果未必很凶。此以人事、主觀、行為來趨吉避凶,是《周易》最令人讚歎之所在。

*完*

 

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What's orthodox divination?

Before explaining divination, we must first make clear about the concept of divination. Divination is defined as a methodical process; by which message from another “dimension”is conveyed to the person who divines. Does that “dimension” mean “God”? Before having had any better evidence, we are unable to deny. How to make receipt of this kind of “conveyed message”? The first step is to adopt the devised method as to learn which hexagram is predestined for the incident. The second step is to interpret the meaning of the“line judgment”indicated, in accordance with the explanations of I Ching. There were 3 divination books in ancient times of China: Lien-Shan (or Continuous Hills), Kuei-Cang (or Return for Preservation), and Zhou Yi (or I Ching). Only I Ching does exist till now.

I Ching is a book of oracles. Yet, it does not contain any materials about the divination system, e.g. the divination method etc. However, according to the Hsi T'zu (Commentary on the Appended Judgments) and the studies by various I Ching experts so far, orthodox divination (or ancient method of divination) is by way of divining with 50 yarrow stalks that facilitates 18 times of grouping & counting to come up with a hexagram. These complicated procedures are perceived as the way of receiving oracles. “Divining with 3-coins”being known as the simplified method is skeptical to practice. In all, the above-mentioned yarrow stalks method plus the explanation of I Ching judgments is the Zhou Yi orthodox divination.

 

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The Significance of Divination

We have 2 viewing angles here. One is the significance of divination itself and the other is its moral significance.

1. The significance of divination

Divination is the way from which people hope for receiving indications by the times they can’t move a single step forward when encountering with skepticism. The significance of divination is to provide inspiration and compliment on problem solving, judgment making, or situation analyzing that are beyond human’s intelligence and logics to manage. In other words, the significance is to make people aware of what is ahead. The divination culture came about in ancient times being the collateral effect of the people’s ignorance that they inclined to “inquire” Heaven for every little thing. Nowadays, people are more knowledgeable but still, why do they always have numerous issues? The answer is because the world has become more complicated and sophisticated. Therefore, regardless of the past, the present, and the future, people for sure are having problems that can’t be resolved by their intelligence. At least, those of insensible require guidance from the external. But why do somebody look like as if they had never had problems? No, the quantity of unresolved problems to a person will depend on how well he understands Relativity and his assessing ability to situation. Therefore, somebody could be caged by just a little problem, while somebody could become hesitant only when forced to make important decisions.

Yet, is there any link between Relativity and the significance of divination? Since the beginning of the Earth, there was everything that couldn’t do without contrariety. In other words, everything must live with differences. This is exactly the rationale for the birth of divination culture, though people were not aware of Relativity. The significance of divination is to provide “foresight”, which helps people to be aware of their ways-should-be. But only can they manage the Relativity theory, the contrariety character between things can be understood whereby decisions could be made so as to avoid divination abuse.

In this sophisticated world, wise men tend to make use of the significance of divination as a synergy to expand their thinking capacity. That is to say, one would treat the judgment of divination as a distinct reference. This extremely informative “proposal” usually has never been thought of, and that’s why it is considered to be precious. Yet, somebody says the significance of divination is not gauged by the accuracy, but by the enlightenment of the messages extracted from the judgments.. Obviously, this is illogical. If the divination result is inaccurate, the judgments then derived are irrelevant at all. Applying the irrelevant “information” to one’s problem is naturally irrational. If that’s the case, divination becomes meaningless, and one may obtain inspiration from just looking up I Ching at random instead.

Of course, divination practicing requires going through a serious course of learning, and judgment interpretation is also extremely difficult to perform. Some entrepreneurs though do not believe in divination at 100%, they are quite willing to pay for some peculiar ideas that the oracles might have hinted them. However, judgment analyst's knowledge and expertise are crucial to all. By merging the analysis of the judgment with the realistic demand so as to give advices is not the so-called “soothsayers” who can perform.

【In the olden days, the judgment analysts were usually advisors to the emperors. All the important matters like naming successor, warfare, farming, hunting, marriage, and worship etc. were divined for revelations, which were subsequently interpreted with the actual situations, so as to determine for the direction to move on. These proposals were submitted to the emperors for final determination and execution. Their status as strategists was incomparably paramount.】

Below is a Q & A quoted from a forum on “I Ching & Management”. The writer explained the significance of divination as to extend to the meaning of Relativity. A young regional marketing manager raised this question.

2. Moral significance

The significance in the act of divination is to provide inspiration and compliment on problem solving, judgment making or situation analyzing, which are beyond human’s intelligence and logics to manage. The significance of divination is for people to act accordingly but not simply to tell auspices or evil omens. Therefore, we agree that Zhou Yi divination is full of moral significance.

Moral significance doesn’t relate to auspices or evil omens but to the correctness and incorrectness of human moral standard. Those divination systems, which simply tell the results by good or evil judgments, are basically lack of moral significance. Those with moral significance would suggest that man’s act is the backbone for success, so man’s proactive attitude is recognized. For instance, if the oracle says “ to go west will be good”, but you are not moving at all, how could it be good? I Ching philosophy is full of moral significance, which is the prelude to the Confucius’ “Righteousness & Fate Partition” doctrine. In the I Ching philosophy, divination is “fate”, while the moral standard in the judgments is “righteousness”. Therefore, even having an auspice still needs efforts to work on. As such, the consequence will be far better than the auspice indicated. When having an evil omen, you have to understand why it is evil, and you will be alert and try to pull yourself away from it. As such, the consequence may not be as bad as the oracle said. Applying man’s power, will and action for “tending towards good fortune and evading from evil” is the most impressive thing of I Ching that we admire at.

 

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